Headless CMS explained in 1 minute
Traditional CMS architecture was once the standard for web development, but today companies are looking for the increased flexibility and scalability provided by headless content management systems. Learn the differences between traditional CMSes, headless CMSes, and the next generation of content management tools — API-first composable content platforms.
Deep dive into headless CMS
To understand what a headless CMS is, (short for headless content management system), it helps to first look at the traditional content management system and what it was designed to do. Traditional CMSes have been around since the early days of web development. Platforms like Wordpress, Drupal, and Sitecore were designed to store and present content elements like text, images, and video on websites.
The traditional CMS approach to managing content puts everything into one big bucket — content, images, HTML, CSS, you name it. This made it impossible to reuse content because it was commingled with code.
As digital channels and devices have evolved, the need for more flexible solutions has emerged. Now, enterprises are developing websites, mobile apps, digital displays, conversational interfaces, and more. Meanwhile, the traditional CMS has failed to keep pace. Why? Because a CMS organizes content in webpage-oriented frameworks, making it impossible for the same content to fit other digital platforms or software.
What is a headless CMS?
A headless CMS, also known as headless software or headless system, is any type of back-end content management system where the content repository, the “body,” is separated or decoupled from the presentation layer, the “head.” What this really means is that a headless CMS allows you to manage content in one place and still be able to deploy that content across any frontend you choose. This is key to omnichannel strategies because it lets you integrate content into any system, software, or website just by calling the APIs the headless CMS exposes.
Advantages of a headless CMS over a traditional CMS
|Traditional CMS||Headless CMS|
|Hosting & delivery||In-house||In the cloud|
|Content model||Built for a single page||Building block for many products|
|Backend system||Monolithic, all-in-one||Microservice, best-in-class|
|Investment||Large up-front cost||Quick proof of concept|
|Technical debt||Inherent to the system||Managed|
What are APIs and how do they work with headless technology?
An API connects two applications so they can exchange data. Content that is housed in a headless CMS is delivered via APIs for seamless display across any site, device or other digital touchpoint. This makes content in a headless CMS endlessly reusable, no matter the omnichannel customer experience you are after today, or the channels that emerge in the future. This is different from Wordpress and other monolithic CMSes that tightly couple the front end with the back end, keeping you locked into how content can (and cannot) be displayed.
Think about headless architecture and APIs like this: the main job of a headless CMS is to store and manage your content. It doesn’t really care what you want to do with that content. The main job of display platforms like a website or mobile app is to present content to people. They don’t really care how that content is stored or managed. APIs are the magical connection points that allow these back-end systems (e.g., headless CMSes) and front-end systems (e.g., websites) to communicate in the specific ways a digital team wants them to.
Learn more in our Ultimate guide to CMS.
What is the difference between a headless CMS and a decoupled CMS?
In your research on CMSes, you’ve probably come across another term, “decoupled CMS.” As the name indicates, the defining feature of a decoupled CMS is that the back end and front end are separate. This separation is similar to a headless CMS, however, a decoupled CMS comes with a head, but using it is completely optional. Some use the terms interchangeably, but they are not identical. The main difference is a headless CMS does not include a presentation layer at all but instead allows developers to decide how they would like to display content. This is often through interactive JSON frameworks like React or Vue.js or static site generators like Gatsby.
What is structured content and how does it support a headless approach?
While a headless CMS software solution enables you to deploy content across any presentation layer, it doesn’t solve an underlying problem: unstructured content. As long as your content is unstructured, it cannot be easily reused across different platforms and channels or repurposed for new projects. Structured content is a general term referring to content that is broken down into small building blocks, organized in a predictable way, and classified with metadata. Take, for example, a webpage. Unstructured content mingles together all the content and code that creates that webpage. This is often done in a WYSIWYG editor, which stands for “what you see is what you get.” Digital content creators are usually familiar with WYSIWYGs as it gives them the ability to make content edits in the back end. This creates perfectly fine webpages, however, content is stuck to that format. What you see is what you get and all that you get.
A structured approach separates the various elements of that page into distinct components. Think author, title, body, image, image description, definitions, ecommerce information, product pricing, etc. All these components can still be assembled to create the same webpage, but they can also be reassembled to create various iterations of the webpage, personalized for a distinct audience, reorganized for a specific campaign, or trimmed down for a mobile experience.
Going beyond the headless CMS with structured content and a composable content platform
A composable content platform is the next evolution of content management. Like a headless content management system, it doesn’t take the traditional approach of organizing content around pages. Instead, it centers on structured content in the form of a content model. A content model defines and organizes content into different content types, or building blocks. These content models are tailored to the needs of each organization, so that content creators aren’t stuck with the overly prescriptive page templates of a traditional CMS.
Combining structured content with a composable content platform, digital teams are able to increase efficiency, create consistent content across channels, and future-proof their content operations.
Unify content into a single content hub
By making content endlessly reusable, structured content and a composable content platform eliminates manual processes like copy and pasting. This makes editing way easier — change the copy or image in one place, and that change applies everywhere the content is located. With all content stored in one centralized content hub, content editors can easily apply the COPE principle: create once, publish everywhere – or edit once, update everywhere.
Enable collaborative workflows
By separating the front end from back end and organizing content with predictable content models, a composable content platform allows content editors and developers to work in parallel. Content editors can nimbly update content across all channels without developer support, freeing up developers to tackle more strategically important work. This offers a competitive advantage for companies that want to increase their speed to market and make the best use of their digital teams’ time.
Increase reusability and scalability
A composable content platform makes content reusability a breeze. Content reusability is a key component for making the most of resources spent on content creation. When all content is accessible for use on any digital endpoint, digital teams can repurpose content across devices and channels. It also allows content to scale across different regions, use cases and campaigns. Content can be optimized for various user experiences by integrating tools for personalization and localization to ensure the right content reaches the right audience at the right time.
Learn more about structured content in the Content reusability workbook.
Why builders choose Contentful Composable Content Platform
Contentful pioneered the headless-approach to content management and is now pioneering its evolution to a platform-first approach. While a headless CMS software solution focuses on content delivery, Contentful® Composable Content Platform goes beyond delivery to provides a central hub for authoring, assembling, editing, and managing content.
Contentful’s platform approach focuses on the full life cycle of content. This includes decoupled delivery capabilities but also back-end customization to drive seamless cross-functional collaboration, a tailored user interface to improve internal content editor authoring, and exposed tooling and frameworks that allow digital teams and agency partners to quickly build the functionality needed, whether it’s extending the platform or integrating it with any digital experience stack.
Contentful is API-first, fully extensible and scales up for the most demanding digital experiences. This includes multi-channel customer experiences, localized sites for multi-region brands, dynamic websites, responsive mobile apps, smart speakers, in-store digital displays, agile ecommerce and even customer and partner portals. It also includes future channels which have yet to be invented.
Contentful’s GraphQL API and RESTful APIs allow developers to programmatically manage and orchestrate content within the platform itself. This includes easy creation of new project spaces, assigning user roles, managing webhooks, content import/export and content modeling, which is scriptable from any source.
The Contentful Marketplace lets you browse through apps, most of which are free and open-source, that extend and expand the capabilities of the Contentful web app for almost any use case you could need. You can integrate your favorite third-party services, build better workflows and customize what you can do with Contentful.
Explore more resources
- Download: Ultimate guide to CMS
- Download: Content reusability workbook
- Download: Modern Website Strategy Guide
Developer? Start building in Contentful for free.